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Ammonia and ammonium are substances which should be converted rapidly into nitrite followed by nitrate and nitrogen gas.
If this does not happen then the aquarium is not fully cycled or biological processes are not proceeding as they should.
The Salifert Ammonia Test Kit is very straightforward and measures the sum of toxic ammonia and ammonium in just a few minutes.
The kit can perform approx. 50 measurements and can detect 0.5 ppm of total ammonia easily.
Copper is often used as a treatment for parasite infested fish and it is essential that the correct concentration is used since high levels can be toxic to marine fish and invertebrates.
Tap water can also be naturally high in copper and it is therefore advisable to test for this on a regular basis.
The Salifert Copper Test Kit offers a very sensitive and accurate test for measuring dissolved or weakly chelated copper from 0.05mg/L to 2mg/L.
The kit can perform approx. 50 tests on tap or aquarium water as a routine check.
Salifert Flatworm eXit itself is quite safe to fish and invertebrates. However, the body juice of flatworms can be toxic to some reef inhabitants when present in a too high concentration. This body juice is sometimes excreted when flatworms die.åÊ
Directions for use:
1 drop for every 4 liters or 1 gallon.åÊThe dropper contains approx. 300 drops (10ml). The dropper cap holds approx. 90 drops. So 1 cap full is good for 360 liters or 90 gallons.
Add it to a high flow area of the tank. If you want to treat a refugium only and if it`s volume is too small for using a powerhead then mixing should be done manually.åÊIt should start to work within 30 minutes.åÊIf within 45 minutes no visible death of flatworms occurs add 50% more.
As soon as the flatworms start to die, commence with the activated carbon to take out any toxic body juices. Also see the above given important remarks.åÊAfter an hour or so you can turn any UV or ozone on again.
Calcium alone cannot form the skeletal material of corals and allow calcareous algae to grow. Some other substances are needed as well. A few other constituents are carbonate and bicarbonate. These two substances also have a major impact on the stabilization of the pH in the proper range of 8.1 - 8.4. Such stabilization is also called buffering.
The total carbonate and bicarbonate concentration is also called carbonate alkalinity or carbonate hardness. The only difference between alkalinity and carbonate hardness is a conversion factor.
Natural sea water has an alkalinity of approx. 2.7 meq/L or approx. 7.5 dKH when expressed as carbonate hardness. For a stable system the alkalinity or carbonate hardness should have a value similar to NSW or slightly higher and should preferably not fluctuate by more than 5%. This means a maximum fluctuation of 0.14 meq/L or 0.4 dKH.
Therefore an alkalinity test kit should be capable in measuring in steps smaller than 0.14 meq/L. Conclusion: Since the major buffer components used for coral and calcareous algae growth are bicarbonate and carbonate, they should be added to correct any decrease in alkalinity or carbonate hardness.
A proper formulated buffer should function in such a way that the corrective measures results in a long lasting effect and should not upset the pH of the system. The alkalinity or carbonate hardness should be kept as stable as possible requiring highly sensitive and accurate means for testing.
Salifert KH / Alkalinity Test Kit is very straightforward. It measures in sufficient small steps of 0.1 meq/L or 0.3 dKH with a sharp color change. This makes detection of important yet small change possible.
The kit can perform approx. 100 - 200 measurements. The Salifert KH + pH Buffer makes correction of the alkalinity or carbonate hardness simple and does not upset the pH of the system. Within 24 hours it will acquire the pH corresponding to other aquarium parameters. Should the pH remain low within 24 hours of corrective measures then an insufficient gaseous exchange (inefficient aeration) is quite often the cause.